School Management Book for Teachers

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Educational management refers to the administration of the educational system in which a group combines human and material resources to supervise, plan, design strategies and implement structures to run an educational system. Education consists of equipping knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, habits and attitudes with learning experiences.

The education system is an ecosystem of professionals in educational institutions, such as government ministries, unions, statutory boards, agencies, and schools. The education system is made up of political bosses, principals, teaching staff, non-teaching staff, administrative staff, and other education professionals who work together to enrich and improve. At all levels of the educational ecosystem, management is required; Management involves planning, organizing, implementing, reviewing, evaluating, and integrating an institution. Educational management is related to the 14 management principles of Henri Fayol. 

Educational Management is a goal-oriented activity. It involves group efforts and organized work and performance toward the achievement of certain predetermined goals in an educational institution. With an active coordinated effort we can achieve the objectives of the organization, through the efficient use of material and human resources in the educational environment.

Co-curricular activities help students maintain a well-rounded education, expressing their interests and talents. The activities help foster a sense of social integration and add a sense of commitment and belonging to one's community and country. Co-curricular activities include science-oriented talent development programs, clubs and societies, sports, uniformed groups, and visual and performing arts groups. Co-curricular activities can also include advocacy groups, botany, personal care, innovation, research methodology, and current affairs.

School Management Book for Teachers

Curriculum planning and development involves "the design and development of integrated learning plans, and the evaluation of plans, their implementation, and the results of the learning experience." Designs and revises the curriculum, promotes curriculum-aligned teaching and assessment strategies, formulates special curriculum programs, creates clear and observable objectives, and generates useful assessment rubrics.

Curriculum development can be described as a three-stage process encompassing a planned, delivered, and experienced curriculum. It can be shaped by pedagogical approaches contributed by theorists and researchers, such as John Dewey, Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, and Albert Bandura.

The development of the curriculum at the preschool level is based on several schools of thought. The kindergarten was established by Friedrich Fröbel in Germany in 1837. Froebel described three forms of knowledge that he considered essential to all learning: knowledge of life, which includes an appreciation of gardening, animals and housework; knowledge of mathematics, such as geometry; and knowledge of beauty, which includes color and form, harmony and movement. 

The goals of Froebel's kindergarten are to awaken a child's physical senses through learning experiences and to provide common ground for people to advance.Margaret and Rachel McMillan were social reformers in England who spent their lives trying to tackle poverty and founded the open air nursery school and training center in London. Their goals were to provide loving care, health support, nutrition, and physical well-being to children. Parents were assisted to help them care for and interact with their children. 


Pedagogical models were provided on how to participate and interact with young children. The pedagogical principles of kindergarten can be found in educational settings that require teachers to nurture and teach a curriculum that covers an exploration of the world, aesthetics, music and movement, and literacy.

John Dewey formulated the theory of progressive education. His philosophy of progressive education embraces the idea that children should be taught to think. Dewey objected to evaluations, as they cannot measure whether a child is educated or not. The school community must offer learning opportunities that are interesting and meaningful and prepare people to live in a democratic society. 

Children learn through practice, cooperation, problem solving, and collaboration, with the teacher acting as the guide. Dewey's curriculum projects encourage exploration, self-discovery, and sensory experiences that provide a holistic approach, focus on children's interests, and are developmentally appropriate.

Montessori education was developed by Maria Montessori, who believed that children go through sensitive periods known as "windows of opportunity." Everything in a Montessori classroom enhances and develops a child's growth. The materials address the interests of children and the natural environment. The learning environment is child centered. The curriculum trains children to be receptive and promotes the desire to master skills.

Waldorf education, created by the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner, focuses on the whole child: body, mind and spirit. The curriculum is designed to elicit thought processes, develop sensitivity, and enhance creative and artistic fluency. The Waldorf curriculum consists of storytelling, aesthetics, practical work, imaginative play, and nature discovery. Modern schools that embrace Waldorf education are independent and autonomous.

Curriculum development at the elementary level focuses on subject fundamentals, covering subject disciplines, knowledge skills, and character development. The disciplines of the subjects are the cores and foundations of language, science, humanities, arts, technology, and social studies. Knowledge skills are personal skills and attributes such as communication, critical thinking, teamwork, and judgment, that are developed through learning experiences based on school pedagogical practices. 

Character development, according to Elliot Eisner, is the implicit curriculum - the hidden agenda of the school. Character traits and attributes include resilience, self-discipline, empathy, and compassion, focusing on the social and emotional development of each student. Curriculum development is a stepping stone to personal and social competence, ethical and cross-cultural understanding, and sound moral judgment.

Curriculum development varies at the secondary level, depending on the course in which the student is enrolled. The curriculum focuses on core subjects such as language arts, mathematics, science, and humanities. Learning experiences, strategic goals, national frameworks, and school philosophy are also considered in developing the curriculum; schools consider progressive values ​​and skills in developing a holistic curriculum. 

Vocational and elective programs are offered, including social studies, art and music, design and technology, and computer science. The specialized schools integrate programs with corporate partners in information and communication technology, entrepreneurship, art, design, media, and Da Vinci Learning. Enhanced programs are also offered in sports, arts and language.

The curriculum at the tertiary education level involves the design and development of specific courses. Griffith University describes planning as based on previously collected evidence; the process also involves assessment, technology-based learning, and discipline-based skills. The process aims to prepare students for the workforce while improving their understanding of a topic. Griffith University considers four key elements in curriculum development: learning analysis, external peer review, peer-based professional learning, and professional learning workshops.

Educational technology involves the integration, planning, implementation and management of information and communication technology for effective learning and teaching. The educational technology branch of an educational system conceptualizes and develops ICTs in education, integrating them with curricular frameworks, development and personnel management.

The focus of educational technology has shifted to online and web-based applications, learning portals, flipped classrooms, and a variety of social media for teaching and learning. Although educational technology includes ICT, it is not limited to educational hardware and theory.

It covers several domains including collaborative learning, learning theory, linear learning, online portal learning, and (where mobile technologies are used) m-learning. These domains contribute to a personalized learning model and promote self-directed learning as students take charge of their education.

This department oversees the financial policies of educational institutes that provide administrative support to schools: financial assistance, revenue operations, and school funds. Financial assistance includes government grants, allowances, and donations that are applied based on income levels and other factors, such as age or institution. Scholarships and awards are distributed by merit or by student category.

The main function of this department is to develop safe and effective programs to educate students about healthy living and physical education, and involves mastering a sport and acquiring basic movement skills. The department develops a curriculum based on sequential outcomes and the physical abilities of students. 

An instructional model can be used as a plan that includes a theoretical foundation, learning outcomes, sequenced activities, and task structures. The department can promote parental involvement through partnerships with families and communities, and can count on the support of dietitians, physical therapists, community health services, and health associations.